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Archive for the ‘literature and healing’ Category

With only the pages of People

and Time for amusement, who would not

feel afraid?

(From:  “In the Waiting Room,” by David Bergman,  Poetry, December 1986)

We are all forced to wait more than a few times in our lives. Those toe-tapping, check-our-wrist watches moments are minor irritations that we all endure.  We wait in lines for tickets or to get through security at the airport.  We wait to be served in restaurants or for a train in the subway station.  We wait for calls or letters from employers, editors or loved ones, for acceptances to schools, or the results of medical tests.  And we wait in hospital or physician’s waiting rooms for the appointment scheduled well over an hour earlier, thumbing impatiently through outdated magazines and checking the clock a dozen times, unable to concentrate on much of anything but the waiting.

Three of my mornings last week were spent in hospital waiting rooms.  I sat with other patients and waited for my name to be called for tests, blood work, and physician consultations.  Thankfully, most of my appointments were completed without too many delays, but occasionally, as I experienced earlier this summer, the time spent in a waiting room can be extreme, testing my patience, ability to “hear” what a physician says by the time he finally walks into the examination room, or undermining the sense of confidence I might have felt about his medical advice and conclusions. In that instance, the impact of an extremely long period of waiting was so extreme I requested a second opinion, which occurred last week.  Thankfully, this physician was on time, listened patiently and took the time for a thorough assessment.  I was armed for a wait, however, arriving with a novel to read and a notebook to write in.

Dr. Sheila Wijayasinghe, writing in a recent Globe and Mail column, offered a physician’s perspective on the time patients’ spend waiting.  “No doctor likes running behind,” she wrote, “and most try to keep on time out of respect for patients’ schedules and busy lives. But even with the best of intentions, we end up running behind due to unpredictable circumstances. She offers examples of the common reasons that lead to patients’ waiting.

.  Getting a call from a specialist that a patient has been admitted to hospital.

.  Urgent walk-in patients arriving who need to be seen quickly

.  A patient arriving late for her appointment

.  A patient with a condition requiring additional time

.  And in some cases, double or triple booking in an attempt to accommodate all patients needing to be seen.

Yet, no matter the reasons, there is a kind of waiting no one finds easy, the kind of waiting punctuated with worry and sleepless nights, waiting that may become a matter of life and death. Anyone diagnosed and living with cancer knows this kind of waiting intimately.  In the course of treatments and recovery, waiting can be torment, as writer Susan Gubar describes in “Living With Cancer: Hurry Up and Wait.”

As a cancer patient, you endure “waiting for a doctor, waiting for radiation, waiting for the delivery of chemotherapy drugs, waiting through interminable infusions or transfusions, waiting for a scan or a biopsy, waiting for the results of a scan or a biopsy, waiting (sometimes starved and unclothed on a gurney in a hall) for surgery… Hurrying up to wait is, of course, the fate of most patients, whether or not they have cancer and no matter how impatient they may be. But for cancer patients, waiting entails being enveloped in heightened fears about harmful protocols and the difficulty of eradicating or containing the disease. While I’m waiting, who knows what appalling cells are conspiring within my body to destroy my being? (In:  “Well,”  New York Times, December 3, 2015)

A 2011 research study reported in The Annals of Surgery found “wait times for cancer treatment have increased over the last decade… potentially resulting in additional treatment delay…Although cancer incidence rates have seen modest declines during the last decade, the overall number of patients diagnosed with a solid organ malignancy has been increasing, likely due to an increasing elderly population.” What’s more, waiting can have more negative impact that simple frustration.  An extended interval from diagnosis to treatment, the researchers concluded, adds to patient anxiety, leads to gaps in care, and perhaps affects disease progression.

Participants in my expressive writing groups often express frustration in the amount of waiting involved to be tested and then receive the results of those tests.  If you’ve been faced with the anxious period between any test for cancer and its results, Muriel Fish’s poem, “In Cold Dreams Before Dawn,” captures the  how waiting can escalate fear and worry:

…The radiologist

Enters, snaps the x-ray film into a wall unit lit with

brisk efficiency…

…the bite of the biopsy needle reminds me

most lumps are benign…

…I wait, remembering long

Bittersweet days sitting with my mother and sister,

each with their own small malignancy and dead within three years.

(In:  The Cancer Poetry Project, V. 1, 2001)

Robert Carroll, MD,  a UCLA psychiatrist, utilizes poetry to help patients cope with illness and struggle.  In a 2005 paper, “Finding the Words to Say It:  The Healing Power of Poetry,” he explored how poetry can help us find the words to express trauma, illness, death and dying.  “What Waiting Is,” one of the featured poems, captures, for me, the emotions that often accompany the waiting room experience of parents, spouses, and family members.

We sit on the bench in the hospital corridor
next to the cafeteria, and we wait.
You know what waiting is.
If you know anything, you know what waiting is.
It’s not about you.
This is about
illness and hospitals and life and death…

In matters of death and dying, we may be forced to do little but wait while our emotions run rampant.  Finding ways to express pain and emotion by writing or discovering meaning in others’ poetry and prose can have therapeutic benefits.  Certainly, it has for me.  Poetry has helped me put words around tumultuous emotions more than once, but this poem, “What Waiting Is,” captures the emotions I felt in the hours preceding the death of my parents, one from lung cancer and the other from Alzheimer’s.

In the bathroom you look in the mirror.
What do you see?
Your father’s sad face?
Your mother’s eyes?
You catch the water cupped
in your thickened hands, splash it on your face,
and hope against hope you can wash it away—
the aging brown spots, the bags,
the swelling truth of waiting—…

you get home to see the light
flash on your answering machine…

you push the button,
and it’s your sister’s voice,
but it’s choked,
and she can’t speak.

 Waiting never seems to get easier, although you may, as I have, become more “seasoned” at doing it as your time in waiting rooms increases.  But there are inevitable times, particularly in the midst of any serious illness, trauma or suffering, that the waiting we must do seems endless.  Perhaps learning to wait, like it or not, is a life lesson we are forced to endure–and to master.

I recall the words of T. S. Eliot in The Four Quartets, “I said to my soul, be still and wait without hope, for hope would be hope for the wrong thing; wait without love, for love would be love of the wrong thing; there is yet faith, but the faith and the love are all in the waiting…”  (East Coker, The Four Quartets, 1940)

The faith and the love and the hope are … in the waiting.  These words make me reconsider why life makes us wait.  I am still learning, even after all these years, to accept what I cannot control, to let things unfold as they will.  “This is life.  You learn to wait.”

Writing Suggestions:

Like you, I’ve sat in many waiting rooms, worried and anxious, as a child or spouse underwent surgery, or waited for the call I dreaded but knew would come as my parents were dying, and waited for the results of echocardiograms or a biopsy.

  • What has been your experience of waiting?
  • Think about all the times you’ve waited for something or someone, whether in a medical waiting room or at another time in life, whether worrisome, painful or even humorous (once, of course,  the waiting ended!)
  • Write about what it’s like to be caught in the “helplessness” of waiting.

 

 

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The art of reading is in great part that of acquiring a better understanding of life from one’s encounter with it in a book. — André Maurois

It’s taken me the better part of three days to organize my books into some kind of order on my bookshelves.  In part, I have a lot of books, although far fewer than I used to when our move back to Toronto dictated some serious downsizing of our belongings.  Despite my reluctance to let many of them go, a feeling much like saying good-bye to old friends, I did, inviting writing group members to choose from the books tagged for donation, giving a few favorites to friends, and donating several boxes to the local library.  Yet I kept favorites, volumes of poetry, selected works of fiction, books on art and writing, and to my shock, I still had enough to fill three large bookcases.

The process of organizing was a slow one, alphabetizing poetry books, grouping fiction favorites and then nonfiction before several volumes on writing and poetry craft, even several favorite children’s books I have yet to let go of.  But as time-consuming as the basic task was,  I was further slowed in my progress by the constant desire to open a book to a dog-eared page, re-read the underlined passages, someone’s inscription on the title page, or if poetry, more than one of a poet’s collection.  I was often lost in remembering:  where I was, what was going on in my life, why I loved a book or a poem as much as I did.  My books, it turns out, have been as much a source of healing and happiness as they were about learning and growth.

“And death shall have no dominion,” Dylan Thomas wrote in his poem by the same name, his words offering me some measure of solace in the wake of my first husband’s drowning:

And death shall have no dominion.

They shall have stars at elbow and foot…

Though they sink through the sea they shall rise again;

Those lovers be lost love shall not;

And death shall have no dominion…  

My volume of e.e. cummings Complete Poems 1904-1962 was filled with marked up passages, asterisks, and dog-eared pages, among them one that during my recovery from grief and loss offered me hope and a new way of living:

may my heart always be open to little
birds who are the secrets of living
whatever they sing is better than to know
and if men should not hear them men are old

may my mind stroll about hungry
and fearless and thirsty and supple
and even if it’s sunday may i be wrong
for whenever men are right they are not young…

I pulled Wallace Stegner’s Pulitzer Prize winning novel, The Angle of Repose (1971), sitting down to re-read several pages.  I remembered reading the novel shortly after I  moved my children and myself from Halifax to Toronto two years after my husband’s death to begin my doctoral studies.  I was aching from loss and longing for what I still called “home,” the small Northern Californian town where my father’s family had homesteaded, settled and where, each day of my childhood, I gazed at the beauty of Mt. Shasta, one of the volcanic peaks in the Cascade Range.

Stegner’s book was a powerful read for me, and he became one of my favorite writers.  In Angle of Repose,  the protagonist, Lyman, a writer confined to a wheelchair, had been recently been abandoned by his wife.  He was filled with bitterness and a sense of defeat.  After moving into his grandparents’ house, he decided to chronicle his grandparents’  early days in the western frontier.  As he read through his grandmother’s letters, he discovered much more about their marriage, struggles and difficulties than he anticipated. Through their story, he learned not only of their lives, but his own.

I sampled passages from several of the pages, in awe of Stegner’s command of language, his deep understanding of the challenges of early life in the  West, and the way in which he artfully moved from the struggles of the grandparents to his protagonist’s.  There were lessons in the book had real impact for me at the time,  and I had underlined passage after passage.

  • Home is a notion that only nations of the homeless fully appreciate and only the uprooted comprehend…” 
  • Hope was always out ahead of fact, possibility obscured the outlines of reality…” 
  • We must be reconciled, for what we left behind us can never be ours again…”
  • She saw in his face he had contracted the incurable Western disease. He set his crosshairs on the snowpeaks of a vision.

It’s no surprise, perhaps, but as my shelving slowed and I paused to page through one book after another of the books I’d loved, I was reminded that reading, perhaps as much as writing, was not only an important part of my daily life, but of healing and happiness.

“Medicines and surgery may cure, but only reading and writing poetry can heal.”                    J. Arroyo, author

It’s not a novel concept (no pun intended).  The notion that books can make us emotionally, psychologically and even physically better goes back to the ancient world.  “The Reading Cure,” published in a 2008 issue of The Guardian reminds us that Apollo was not only the Greek god of poetry, but also of healing.  Aristotle believed literature had healing benefits and could be used to treat illness.  Hospitals or health sanctuaries in ancient Greece were typically situated next to theatres, most famously at Epidaurus, where dramatic performances were considered part of the cure.

One sheds one’s sicknesses in books– D. H. Lawrence

A few months ago, a friend sent me a link to a 2015 New Yorker Magazine article “Can Reading Make You Happier?” by Ceridwen Dovey.  Dovey explores the origins of Bibliotherapy, which is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “an interaction between the reader and certain literature which is useful in aiding personal adjustment.”  Bibliotherapy is a therapeutic practice, widely used in the U.K., that uses words to soothe the emotions and alter thoughts and to help people deal with psychological, social and emotional problems.   Covey notes that the Ancient Greeks inscribed a library entrance  in Thebes as a “healing place for the soul, noting that Shakespeare, in the play “Titus Andronicus,” encourages the audience to  “Come, and take choice of all my library, And so beguile thy sorrow …”

Bibliotherapy came into its own at the end of the nineteenth century. Sigmund Freud began using literature during psychoanalysis sessions, famously remarking, “Whenever I get somewhere, a poet has been there first.”   Following World War I, as traumatized soldiers returned home from the front, they were often prescribed a course of reading. Later in the century, bibliotherapy was also used in hospitals and libraries, and since, the practice has been utilized by psychologists, social and aged-care workers, and doctors as a viable mode of adjunct therapy.

You may be interested to know that there is scientific research that supports health benefits of reading, for example, Covey cites a 2011 study published in the Annual Review of Psychology that showed when we read about an experience in a novel, we draw on the same brain networks when we’re reading stories and when we’re trying to guess at another person’s feelings.  And other studies suggest that people who read a lot of fiction tend to be better at empathizing with others.  At the very least, reading does boost your brain power, like a good jog exercises your cardiovascular system, and it can help you relate to others feelings, particularly if you read literary fiction.  Reading helps us relax, and reading before bed even helps us sleep.

But perhaps the most important thing reading does for us is in its capacity to open our eyes, minds and hearts to the larger world, to immerse ourselves a world beyond our everyday lives, and to find ourselves among the words another has written on a page–words that speak to what we are experiencing, that remind us of hope and healing.  What good literature can do and does do best, for so many of us, is touch our souls.

From Great Expectations I learned the power the stories we tell ourselves have to do either harm and good, to ourselves and to others; from Death of a Salesman I learned the dangers of a corrupt version of the American Dream; from Madame Bovary, I learned to embrace the real world rather than escaping into flights of fancy; from Gulliver’s Travels I learned the profound limitations of my own finite perspective; and from Jane Eyre I learned how to be myself. These weren’t mere intellectual or moral lessons, although they certainly may have begun as such. Rather, the stories from these books and so many others became part of my life story and then, gradually, part of my very soul. –Karen Swallow Prior, The Atlantic, 2013. 

Writing Suggestions:

  • Consider how reading has played a role in your life.
  • What role does reading play in your life?
  • What kind of books or literature do you most prefer? Why?
  • Has reading helped you during difficult periods in your life? How?
  • What are some of your most memorable or enduring books or poetry you’ve experienced? Why?
  • Describe a difficult time in your life and a book or poem which offered you some solace and insight.

 

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